Application Of Organisational Behaviour Concepts To Personal Life

It is common knowledge today that progressive technologies, informational systems and total quality are obligatory conditions that define “the playing ground” for the organizations in the global economics. Now, especially in the XXI century, the only important concurrent advantage of the organization is its human resources. Thus, scientific grounds of organization behavior and their practical application by means of human resources management  become very important (if not the most important) trend in management. The tendency is strengthened by the following trends in global economy:  the transformation of today’s workplace puts new demands to employees – flexibility, life long learning, new ways of looking at things. Besides, workplace has become more heterogenous in means of gender, race, ethnicity; thus employees don’t necessarily assimilate but maintain culture, this creating need for organization to consider differences.

An outline:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Organization behavior:
  3. a) definition of the term;
    b) relating disciplines;
    c) objectives of studying.

  4. Levels of organization behavior.
  5. Influence of organization behavior on individuals:
  6. a) organization culture;
    b) other aspects of influence.

  7. Conclusions.

Organization behavior is understanding, foreseeing and management of human behavior within organizations. In other word, organizational behavior investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose ofapplying such knowledgetoward improving the organization’s effectiveness. [1] Organizational behavior refers to what people do in an organization, what their attitudes, how they perform. It applies to three levels of behavior in organizations: the individual, the group, the structure.

Organizational behavior relates to many behavioral disciplines, such as:

  1. Psychology deals with Individual and studies learning, motivation, personality, perception, training, leadership, job satisfaction, decision making, attitude, work design, stress.
  2. Sociology deals with Group focusing on group dynamics, work teams, communications, power, conflict, intergroup.
  3. Social Psychology concentrates on behavioral change, attitude change, communication, group decisions, group process.
  4. Anthropology studies comparative values/attitudes, cross-cultural analysis, organizational culture/environment.
  5. Political Science, finally, focuses on conflict, intraorganizational politics, power. [2]

Studying of organization behavior is based on such reasons:

  • Humans are diverse, but have fundamental consistencies leading to predictability, and if these consistencies are noticed and used in right way, one can lead people’s activity in desirable direction;
  • Humans are rule bound, that is to say, we have scripts for different settings (for example, to ask a question one  raises his hand);
  • A systematic study (examining behavior to draw conclusions based on scientific evidence about cause and effect);
  • Organizational behavior is not all common sense;
  • The main objective of studying organization behavior is to expose the one who studies to systematic analysis to understand, predict, avoid mistakes in workplace whether he or she is management or employee or on a team;
  • To understand and properly use organization behavior, one should bear in mind two absolutes: humans are complex; people react differently in different situations;
  • To succeed, one should use a contingency approach (consider the behavior in the context/situation in which it occurs).[3]

To understand the mechanism of organization behavior, its basic model, that includes 3 levels, must be regarded:

Individual level behavior

  • Personal characteristics of individuals, such as values and attitudes,  impact individual behavior and group.
  • Perception and motivation is important, as well as the role of rewards.

Group level behavior

  • Group is more than the sum of the individuals; people behave differently when in group versus alone. On this level such points as  group dynamics, work teams, decision-making, leadership, organizational culture, power, politics, conflict, negotiation are important.

Organizational system level

  • Top level is built on lower two-this is the structure; work process, organizational outcome, change being  a key  objective of the whole process.[4]

Now it’s time to consider the question of influence of organization behavior on personal life of those who experience it.

One of the most important compounds reflecting influence of  organization behaviour on people who are subject to it, is organization culture. Organizational culture is a system of shared meaning and common perception held by members of an organization which distinguishes it from other organizations.[5] The main components of organizational culture are: behavioural stereotypes in human interaction (language, traditions, customs, rituals), group norms(standards and values, peculiar to definite groups), proclaimed values to realization of which the group longs for, formal philosophy( the most general political and ideological principles that determine the group’s actions toward external world, game rules (the rules of behavior and restrictions), existing practical experience (methods and technical solutions, used by group to attain its goals), mental models of the members (cognitive paradigms and systems) and, finally, “basic metaphors” or integration symbols, elaborated by group for self-identification. [10]

The key characteristics of organization culture are as follows:

  1. Innovation and Risk Taking– How innovative should the team be;
  2. Attention to detail: How detailed or precise;
  3. Outcome orientation: How much is focussed on results versus techniques;
  4. People Orientation: How much management considers outcomes of people;
  5. Team Orientation: How much work is team versus individual;
  6. Aggressiveness: How aggressive/competitive versus easygoing are people;
  7. Stability: How much emphasis is there on status quo.[6]

All this features are peculiar to both organization as a whole and individuals that work in it; by means of organization behavior, views and beliefs of employees change towards direction desirable for proper functioning of the organization.

Organizational culture concerns the perception of employees; research on culture seeks to measure how people view their organization (a descriptive term)versus job satisfaction (an evaluative term), which measures responses about environment, expectations, rewards. A culture where core values are intensely held and widely shared is called strong culture; strong culture has strong effect on members; it should lead to lower turnover; strong culture increases behavioural consistency.[7]

Culture’s main function is “defining the rules of the game”/”the way things are done around here”. This could be enhanced to the following:

  1. boundary defining role: it creates distinctions between on organization and others;
  2. conveys a sense of identity for members;
  3. facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than individual;
  4. enhances social system stability- a so-called role of the social glue;
  5. serves to make sense and guides and shapes attitudes and behaviours;  ensures everyone going in the right direction, and influences ethical behaviour.[10]

Speaking of personal implications of organization behavior, one should add that developing a broad range of skills makes employee  a more effective participant in any organization, increases his or her  personal success, marketability. A well rounded employee will weigh flexibility and control; weigh an internal and external focus.  A growing investment in people including training and employee ownership, may also lead to more “organizational commitment” [8] (an employee’s emotional attachment to organization, that includes self-identification as a part of organization and more active involvement in its activity) as well as it may improve “organizational citizenship behaviour” [9] (discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job, but promotes effective functioning of organization)-making constructive statements about team, volunteer, etc.

Thus, we examined the issue of organization culture and its influence of people’s personal life. Nowadays, when human resource (along with information and high technologies) has become by far the most important and determinative resource in economic relations, this sphere of activity (as well as discipline) gains more and more importance. Proper and successful human management is advantageous for both organization as a cohesive and single body enabling to improve organization’s effectiveness and adapting this human resource to the very needs of organization; and for individuals as far as it increases employees success, productivity, develops needed and profitable skills, as well as facilitates  cooperation and  dealing with other people, mutual understanding, enhances behavioural consistency, acquired within organizational culture.

To raise effectiveness of people management, organization behavior approach should further focus on such spheres as organizational culture, international management, overcoming of working stress, labour projection, goals identification, negotiation skills, team forming, political strategies, leadership styles, organizational development and decision-making methods. The future of organization behavior sphere looks rather bright and fascinating. Its red line is in making human resources, the core of competitiveness of any organization, more complete and effective.


1. Fred Luthans. Concept of organization behaviour. Alabama press, 1997

2. Schein Edgar. Organizational Psychology. 3rd Edition, London : Prentice-Hall , 2003

3. Grint, K., The Arts of Leadership, Oxford University Press, 2000.
4. Robert Kreitner, Angelo Kinicki, Marc Buelens. Organizational Behaviour: European Edition, 2/e, Chicago press, 1999.

5. Chris Argyris. Organization Behavior & Culture. Ahthens university press, 1998

6. Robbins, S.P. Organizational Behavior 9th Edition Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001

7. Robbins, S.P. Managing Today 2nd Edition.  Upper Saddle River NJ:  Prentice Hall, 2000

8. Witzel Morgen. Organization Behavior, Thoemmes Press, 1998

9. Robert Blake. Historical background of organization theory. Winston press, 2000

10. Shain U. Organizational culture and leadership, Arizona University press, 1996.

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