Essay Examples and How To's Essay Examples and How To's Thu, 29 Jun 2017 12:21:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Criminal Justice Agencies Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:29:10 +0000 Management is not central to the concept of an office. In most cases, people link management to a specific office. However, management is a function that does not place the responsibility to a particular office. In the criminal justice sector, there has been a focus on the creation of managers, with a disregard of the importance of leadership. The managers in the criminal justice sector have come out strongly to defend the system and culture to avoid any intrusion. Unlike managers, leaders are risk takers, creative and able to align an organization to the prevailing market conditions. Therefore, they stand a better chance of running the criminal justice system than managers. A limitation among managers is that they tend to follow procedures of work, which limit them from exploring creative methods of solving problems. The paper will put forward an argument and evidence as to why leadership is important in the criminal justice system.


Management, like leadership, is a process involving the coordination of a group, with an objective of achieving some goals. Management is ongoing and often directed towards the realization of organizational aims. Various staffs working in the criminal justice sector, such as wardens, police, chiefs of police perform managerial work on a daily basis. Moreover, the frontline police such as the correction officers depict some management role (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, 2012). In this respect, executives are not the only people responsible for executing management roles (Stohr, & Collins, 2014). Regardless of their job description, these staffs are part of the management team. This view of management shows that the study of management is crucial for people interested in pursuing criminal justice careers.


Leadership is a process, which aids in directing and mobilizing people and ideas. Also, leadership focuses on the culture, symbols and rituals of an organization. Comparatively, managers create, protect and enable systems. They also focus on developing organizational structures, executing controls and solving a myriad of organizational problems. Management emphasizes the achievement of rationality by focusing on goals, control and relevant laws (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, 2012). On the other hand, leaders focus on the development of visions, align people with common values, motivate and inspire people to realize the set vision. Moreover, leadership is diverse, with transformational, charismatic, visionary and other features. The availability of various types of leaders allows organizations to choose those that will help it realize particular long-term goals.

Criminal Justice Agencies

The criminal justice sector is comprised of agencies created by governments that have the role of ensuring control in the society. The task is complex, which the agencies achieve through crime deterrence, and sanctioning offenders. Certainly, this is not an easy role as it involves people. Currently, criminal justice agencies are facing problems because of a culture created by managers. Subsequently, they attempt solving the same problems using ready-made methods. If this is the trend, then, problems in the sector are not likely to end (Allan, & Sawhney, 2010). From such a perspective, what does the criminal justice agencies require? Does the sector require managers or leaders? Managers and leaders play an important role in the system, but their way of doing things is quite differently. Comparatively, management and leadership may appear similar, but they have distinct features.

Management or Leadership

Certainly, management is imperative in the criminal justice sector. The concept of problem solving can help meet the needs of criminal justice system. However, it is important to note that, the criminal justice sector faces problems. Most of these problems depict the dynamic nature of criminal activities, people, and society. For example, the world is currently experiencing unprecedented levels of terror activities. With managers who work from a constrained description, the criminal justice agencies need leaders because they work broadly (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, 2012). In addition, when problems arise in the criminal justice system, managers tend to look for solutions, which worked elsewhere.

The move results in redundancy that makes the criminal justice sector remain stagnant. In the corporate world, particularly corporations, they hire leaders. Leaders tend to solve problems using new methods. Moreover, they do not care about what worked in another organization. Leaders want to be the point of reference to the society because of their unique way of doing things. Furthermore, not all people like the criminal justice agencies, particularly the police or law enforcement. Their roles are difficult, and in most cases, they encounter conflict from the members of the society. If police lack leadership skills, they are likely to facilitate conflict in the society.

Therefore, they need to appear in charge or control when things go wrong. Besides, they have to show resilience, commitment, dedication and courage to try new things so that they can control the society, effectively (Schaffer, 2010). The same applies to top officials in the criminal justice system. Matters of the law are not easy; thus, there is a need to embody or symbolize the law. The law is considered double-edged; thus, the people administering the law should reflect the attribute of the law. Most importantly, there are varieties of leadership styles. All the styles fit a particular need in organizations. Therefore, with the inevitability of change, regardless of the sector, the criminal justice system needs leaders (Wright, 1999).

On the other hand, compared to leaders, managers appear lenient, and inappropriate for the criminal justice system. While their role remains documented, the problems facing the criminal justice system require a figure with power. Comparatively, even with the mention of the term leader, someone is likely to deduce much about the term. Leaders are associated with seriousness, some fear and focus. On the other hand, managers appear interactive, and while this is an important trait, such does not work well in sectors as crucial as the criminal justice system. Through much interaction with their peers, respect starts to diminish gradually.

In addition, the goals of the criminal justice system are broad, and they are central to the betterment of the society or country (Karimu, 2012). Therefore, a simple mistake or failure could have adverse effects on the system or a complete disintegration. Organizations that employ leaders tend to achieve their long-term objectives, and align the company to the prevailing change. The criminal justice system requires people who can work under pressure to realize complex goals for a society or the country. Additionally, these people must be in a position to take criticism. Evidence suggests that people with such qualities are leaders.


Allen, J. M., & Sawhney, R. (2010). Administration and management in criminal justice: A service quality approach. Los Angeles: Sage.

Karimu, O. (2012). Understanding leadership standards and ethical practices in criminal justice. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(3), 23-31.

Schafer, J. A. (2010). Effective leaders and leadership in policing: traits, assessment, development, and expansion. Policing-an International Journal of Police Strategies & Management. doi:10.1108/13639511011085060

Stohr, M., & Collins, A. P. (2014). Criminal justice management: Theory and practice in justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2012). Criminal justice organizations: Administration and management. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Wright, K. N. (1999). Leadership is key to ethical practice in criminal justice agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. Retrieved from

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Research Paper Example: Determinants of Health Mon, 26 Oct 2015 10:47:09 +0000 The health of an individual living in a certain region is determined by his/her emotional and physical probes which make him/her responsive to his/her surroundings. In our surrounding the people around us form our social world while the physical features and factors are part of our environmental world. A good social standing and environment are components of healthy living. This paper explores the environmental and social factors that determine the health index of the tri-state mid-Atlantic region in the United States. The region specifically constitutes Washington, Maryland, and Virginia states. The paper looks at most of the aspects of the environment that determine the suitability of residence and vulnerability of a person to unhealthy conditions. Some of the parameters considered include the cost of living, neighborhood, racial profiling, access to quality medical healthcare, lifestyle, the social capital, and chronic stress levels as social factors. The environmental factors include housing, radiation, access to clean water, pollution and the transport system.

Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Disparities in the Tri-State Mid -Atlantic Region and Policy Considerations for Policy Developments

The determinants of health are circumstances in which people live from their birth to old age and a health care system accessible to them (CDC, 2015). The determinants targeted in this case are those that directly affect the health living of people in a certain area. The circumstances of such nature are determined at a macro level rather than on a micro level. Some of the determinants include social, economic, environmental, and political factors present within an area. Each State in the United States provides a different living condition for its people. There are those cities in America, or around the world, where people are more prone to certain health conditions than other cities.

Disparities are obvious and unavoidable in any social system. Disparities in health are secondary; arising from disparities in social classes, and standards of living of different places across a specified place. The socio-economic differences of people in a certain region determine their level of vulnerability to diseases. For instance, people living in affluent backgrounds are more likely to stay healthy for longer periods compared to children living in less a slum. Some diseases are restricted to places where majorities of the people are of the lower social standing. A good example of a health disparity that comes as a result of the standard of living is the infant mortality rate.

Statistics from around the world

Women in Bolivia with at least high school education have lower rates of infant mortality, at 4% than women with no education whose rate stands at 10%. The life expectancy of Australian indigenous citizens is lower compared to that of non-indigenous people. To emphasize the essence of this study, statistics from England show that men in Glasgow (at 54 years) have 28 years shorter lives on average compared to their counterparts in Lenzie. The two towns are only a few kilometers apart. The average rate for disabilities for people above the age of eighty years is 58.8% for the lowly educated. The rate of disabilities for the highly educated people stands at 40.2% (WHO, 2015). Despite these disparities in community characteristics, health care is essential for communities. As such, it is the responsibility of the government to provide primary health care for all citizens regardless of their environmental or social disposition.

Social Factors of Health Disparities in the Tristate of Maryland, Washington D.C, Virginia


This area is referred to as the Washington Metropolis. Being the Capital of the United States of America, Washington is a city with a high standard of living, levels of education. As a result, people lead more affluent lives than other parts of the United States. People in this city are more motivated to succeed. They spend longer hours to work but allocate shorter time for socialization.

Washington is also the Political capital of the country. Any policies passed by the Congress affect this city first before their implementation in other areas of the country. For example, the Affordable healthcare act popularly known as the Obamacare is a nationwide policy but its implementation is stricter in Washington and its environments than in other states. As stated before, more educated people with stable incomes are more likely to lead healthy lives and produce healthier children. Most of the parents in Washington are health-conscious and tend to take health tips and advice more seriously. Children in this state go for checkup even for minor signs of illness.

The Socioeconomic position (SEP) of a region is a term that scientists use to describe a region’s social resources and materials accessible to people. It essentially stands for the social ranking of people. People of lower SEPs tend to die younger than their counterparts with higher SEPs. The past 100 years have seen tremendous changes in the United States health care system, seeing a major shift in the causes of health issues in Washington from infectious to chronic diseases. Cases of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have been on the rise in the past few years and continued to rise even further. The SEP level of the individual counts, but the average SEP of the community in which an individual lives is much more important. There is a complex relationship between the community’s SEP and an individual’s, but it is realistic. For instance, the effects on the health status of a person of the lower socio-economic standing could begin before birth and manifest itself years after birth after accumulation.

Socioeconomic Factors that Affect healthcare in Washington

Chronic stress: This condition results from a reaction to the emotional pressure that someone suffers for long periods, and the individual lacks control over how they feel. This condition could come from the social factors of life whose causative agents attack a person’s psyche. Some of the possible causes are economic, such as the lack of a job in a place with high living expenses, discrimination, crime, and pollution. Stress could be detrimental to health, and at times fatal. Some of the chronic conditions that could result from stress include high blood pressure, insomnia, weakened immunity, and anxiety. Repeated stress exposure leads to obesity, depression and cardiovascular conditions (APA, 2015).

Washington is a highly competitive state with a high standard of living. According to Sperling’s Best Places Website, the cost of living in Washington is higher than the US average by 54%. Its rate of unemployment stands at 7.00 with a decreasing rate of job availability (Sperling, 2015). The cost of education in the state is more than twice the average cost of education in the country. Social pressure comes with trying to balance a good standard of living by working hard and trading one’s health. Overworking leads to increased stress levels and thus unhealthy living, despite the high levels of affluence in the city. On a ranking system featuring America’s most stressed out cities, Washington D.C leads the list. People in D.C work an average of about 40 hours per week. This list was compiled basing parameters such as the commuting time, the cost of living, unemployment rates, crime, population density, and hours worked and the portion of income spent on rent (Nelson, 2015).

Race and ethnicity: the demographic census of 2014/15 show that Washington’s population comprises 50% Blacks, 38% Whites, 9% Hispanics, 4% other races, 3% Asian and less than 1% American Indians  (Stats, 2015). The issue of race in America dates back to years before independence. So much has changed in the United States, but the undertones of racial profiling are present in some parts. Washington still struggles with fighting the vice. It remains one of the places where people look through the racial lens (Hurt, 2011). Consequently, some people are bound to be treated with prejudice and denied certain opportunities because of the color of their skin. Such situations could lead to joblessness or under-appreciation thus causing stress. The people who suffer the most are people of the African descent as they are viewed in the old-fashioned notion of being home assistants.

Income inequality and affluence: It is a fact that Washington is one of the most affluent cities in the United States, and probably the world. The average income for residents is $100,000 per year (Morello & Keating, 2010). Thirty years ago, in the 70s, a CEO took home an income that was 30 times higher that of the normal employees. Today, they make as much as about 300 times more for similar comparison (O’Brien, 2015). House rent and land rates have been on a steady rise, yet there have been cases of racial segregation, income inequality, and high standards of living, all of which combine to make life harder and more expensive for a Washington resident.

However, making a living in Washington is a very lucrative opportunity to save a lot of money from the salary since the residents are not entitled to State income taxes. The huge salaries offered by firms and government agencies make life in Washington very comfortable for the working class despite the high costs of living.

The levels of Education in the state Washington area is among the highest in the United States. On average, five suburb countries in that region have more than half their population with at least a bachelor’s degree. The government and large employer institutions play a huge role in advancing the levels of education for its employees. An increase in the number of degrees or any academic qualifications warranties a pay hike. However, disparities are also exhibited concerning education levels. There is a part of residents who struggle with large debts and survival in the areas with a high standard of living. They struggle with employment, and since the racial lenses still apply, they hardly find satisfying jobs. The level of affluence increases for the rich while the poor are forced to look for cheaper alternative places to live. The levels of education are thus a social pressure that forces people to adapt or live in stress and succumb.

Social capital: The social capital is the value of a person’s social networks along with the mutual inclinations that result from them. The meaningfulness of a social network is determined by the amount of positive impact that it brings to a person. Washington is a city with vast amounts of opportunities. However, it is equally a city of busy businesspeople and professionals who hardly have time to socialize or set aside time for the gym or sports. For this reason alongside ethnic alienation, people hardly expand their social capital within the city. Without expanding the social networks, life might get harder for those seeking opportunities of growth but can hardly catch up with the high costs of living.

In social gatherings, there is a new trend in the major cities where people cling to their phones even when talking to people. In many social gatherings, phones serve to distract social interactive sessions. People can hardly socialize and build networks because there is a barrier posed by the addiction to technology. These situations are stressful and might make someone get into anxiety fits or depression.

Lifestyle: Most of the people living in the Metropolitan area work two or more jobs, for more than 40 hours per week. Most of this time is spent either in front of a computer or a desk for long hours little or no stretching time. Some people get into the habit of ordering instant foods, most of which is junk. Multiple innovative fast-foods companies have provided clients with the option of ordering their meals online and waiting for door delivery. The people adopt the lazy lifestyle and can hardly exercise. They, therefore, become vulnerable to lifestyle diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and the chronic heart conditions. In some instances, the lifestyle that people live, failing to watch their diet, health status, and exercise puts them at the risk of cancer. These conditions often affect people in the huge, busy cities because of the lifestyles they choose to adopt.

Neighborhood characteristics: The kind of places in which one chooses to live determines their health status (Commission Health, 2008). Different surveys have linked socio-economic features of a person’s neighborhood to different conditions such as mortality, disability, health behaviors, chronic conditions, and the general health status.

A person’s character or personality is an average of his/her environment. The environment, in this case, represents the people that surround a person. Children who grow up in areas where people visit the doctor for check-ups regularly are likely to adopt the same culture. In these neighborhoods, the general health status of the community is better compared to neighborhoods that keep overlooking symptoms of medical conditions. Besides, highly qualified medical doctors tend to look for chances to practice in affluent neighborhoods as opposed to rural or “shanty” areas. It means that rich people are more likely to get better medical care since they can afford it.

In Washington, the cost of medical treatment is soaring higher and higher. Only the affluent people can afford the costs of a regular checkup with minor or no symptoms. Conditions that could be treated at a cheaper cost in other places are expensive in Washington area. Such a cap puts a thick line of comfort between the rich and the poor. The positive side of living in affluent areas is that all kinds of medical cases have places for treatment. The character of the neighborhood directly affects a person’s health.

Medical care: Due to the capital availability in this city-state, quality healthcare is accessible, though at high costs. However, there are many healthcare plans that give a reprieve to the Washington residents. The Affordable Healthcare Act (ACA), commonly known as the Obamacare, brings quality healthcare into an affordable zone for millions of American citizens who could not afford comprehensive health insurance policies. The law repealed insurance restrictions that were scrupulous. For example, children get coverage from their parents’ health insurance plan until they are 26. It removes limitations from lifetime insurance coverage, annually payable amount, and denial of coverage for people with pre-existing conditions. The law requires insurance for everyone (Washington HCA, 2015).

The Washington Apple Health is a state and federal government-funded Medicaid plan. The health care plan provides health care medical insurance for those who cannot afford. Out of the 7 million people living in the Washington state, 2 million are covered by the State Healthcare Authority through Apple health and Public Employees Benefits Board (PEBB) programs. With regards to the health situation in Washington State, the citizens are well covered. As a matter of fact, everyone can afford to go for treatment and preventive measures to hospitals for a range of diseases. Washington is thus a healthy state.

Social-economic Factors that Affect Healthcare in Maryland

Chronic stress: Just like Washington, the cost of living in Maryland is higher than the US average. It, therefore, means that people living in this state have to work harder than their counterparts in other states. According to the Sperling’s Best Places Website, Maryland’s cost of living scores 116.10 which is higher than the country’s average of 100 (by 14.10%) (Sperlings, 2015). The rate of unemployment stands at 5.3%, which is lower than the nation’s average (6.30). However, the jobs are decreasing at an annual rate of 0.29%. The cost of education in Maryland is slightly less than double the US average. The average cost of an average home is $57,100, having appreciated by 0.6% in 2014 (Sperlings, 2015). These statistics make Maryland a more affordable place to live in compared to Washington. The rate of unemployment being lower than the nation’s average means that most people afford the costs of living. Consequently, the chances of stress are reduced in this State.

However, since the cost of living is higher than the nation’s average, it becomes difficult for new immigrants and the unemployed to settle. As mentioned before, people work more than two jobs to keep up with the standard of living and be able to save for their sunset years. Maintaining this kind of life balance means that people hardly have time to socialize except at the workplaces, and hence a huge social pressure. Maryland ranks 7th in the most stressed out states in the United States. The fact that people are more relaxed in this area compared to Washington and other more stressed states means that stress-related health conditions are lower than them.

Race and ethnicity: Baltimore is a major economic hub in Maryland. Throughout its history, the coastal city has struggled with racial segregation. In the early 20th century, Mayor Barry Mahool passed a racially restrictive law that barred residents from buying homes in places having racial dominance outside of their own. It was the first apartheid state, forming a culture that has hardly faded. According to Anthony Batts, a Police Commissioner in Baltimore, the city still grapples with the mid-20th Century racism (Puente, 2015).

In response to the various complaints made by Blacks and other minority races, Brian Frosh, the state attorney general, released new police guidelines that restricted them from racial profiling. This action made Maryland the first state to enforce anti-racist policies (Ali, 2015). Racial profiling is an obvious source of social stress since people of certain races are restricted from accessing certain rights silently. Racial profiling denies people the right to mingle freely and chase opportunities within communities.

Income inequality and affluence: Maryland is the richest state in America. According to statistics, a median house received an average of $73,931 for the whole state. A high median annual income coupled with low poverty rates (2nd lowest) signifies equitable resources distribution for its residents. It means that people can interact on a more equitable level than any other states of America (Frohlich & Kent, 2015). From this point of view, health concerns due to stressful conditions are lower. The kind of health issues to worry about arises mainly from the preferred lifestyle.

Social capital: The social capital is a crucial component of an economy’s growth. Due to the racial profiling that has formed part of the characteristic of the State, communities have formed social clubs and communities that constitute racial blocks. For this reason, free mingling and networking are restricted along racial and ethnic lines. As such, the social capital is not exploited to its fullest potential in the communities.

Technology is also a huge barrier in the social places. Most people in the United States are addicted to their smartphones. Most people have developed a habit of checking their phones even when there is no prompt for notification. This habit is a social killer and pushes people away from each other.

Social networking is a national issue that continues to go further from a normalized situation with the increase in communication sophistication. This rising sophisticated technology makes people lonelier in a crowded society, something that could result in anxiety and other psychological implications. According to research, there exists a correlation between one’s degree of loneliness with their mental and psychological health status. People of such kinds will feel less vital, experience longer healing periods, feelings of loneliness at times, increased proneness to depression, and the likelihood to contract diseases like chronic illnesses (Social Wellness, 2015). People spend most of their time working hard to earn a living at the expense of their health, but then realize that their health is too damaged to heal. As a result, they spend most of the assets they earned to try to recover their health.

Lifestyle: People spend most of their time working hard to earn a living at the expense of their health, but then realize that their health is too damaged to heal. As a result, they spend most of the assets they earned to try to recover their health. Maryland is a lively state full of professionals in their vibrant years. The median age for the Maryland residents is 37. It means that people are relatively younger. Since most of the people regard professional progression with high priorities, they will spend most of their lives in school then spend the rest of the active years at the workplace. As a result, people hardly give enough time to exercise and fitness.

Since most people can afford to pay for high-speed internet and food in the fancy fast food joints, they become lazy to walk to restaurants. They will often visit the food joint websites so that they order their junk from the comfort of their offices and homes. Moreover, many children in the state have become coach potatoes and heavy junk consumers. They wait for food, watch television and play video games most of the time before they are 21.

All the issues mentioned are detrimental to one’s health. In this state, the affluence is a bigger problem since it makes people trade their health for the sustenance of the expensive life. The common lifestyle diseases include diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases.

Neighborhood characteristics: The Maryland neighborhood is safe and relatively stress-free. Known as “America in Miniature,” the State’s topography and get-away sites in the State are breathtaking. It means that people who love nature could call this place home. Fresh environments provide distinctive calm and poise for residents. There is much to enjoy in Maryland, from the peaceful neighbors to lively sports. The NFL brings people of all races together, making them forget their physical attributes. Clean neighborhood and other reasons mentioned above make Maryland a state with relatively high scores on the health index. The high energy in this state coupled with the vibrant young people who care for their profession and healthy families ensures that most people are emotionally, mentally, and psychologically whole.

Medical care:  There are quite a good number of hospitals and healthcare facilities that offer quality, world-class healthcare in Maryland. Three of its 70 hospitals are ranked among the best in the nationally, a position that puts them among the world’s best in the world. John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore is the best in the State and comes 3rd on the national scale. It has many awards for complicated medical cases that were solved delicately and successfully treated.

There are several medical assistance plans available to residents. First is the Maryland Medicaid Program. It is available for people based on eligibility criteria determined by the state or is medically needy. People who fall between the ages of 19 and 64 qualify for coverage. Single people who have an income of $15,856 and families that make any amounts of income below $26,951 also qualify. For the families and children, there is the FAC (Families and Children) plan for low-income families who need financial assistance. For them, a Temporary Cash Assistance program runs from the State’s fund the medical care reprieve is also available for US immigrants who are legally permanent residents, asylee, refugees, or war veterans who have served in the US Army. The aged, the physically challenged, or the blind and institutionalized persons also qualify for Medicaid.

The Maryland Children’s Health Program (MCHP) provides cover for people under the age of 19 who come from families that make less than 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FLP). Those who qualify for the MCHP also do so for full Medicaid. Maryland Primary Adult care Program is similar to MCHP, but it is for people above the age of 19. There is also the Family Planning program for women below 51 years who have lost the Medicaid cover due to pregnancy. Patients of End-stage renal disease qualify for the Kidney Disease program (DOHMH Maryland, 2015).

The above list of medical aid available for the residents of Maryland is long enough to show the health index of the state. One can be assured of quality Medical attendance regardless of whether he/she was born in the state or not, provided he/she is legal citizens of the United States of America.

Social-economic Factors that Affect Healthcare in Virginia

Chronic stress: Virginia is the best choice of a home to make a living and to age. While jobs reduced in other States, the rate of employment increased by 1.72%. The rate of unemployment clocks 4.50%, which is well below the US average. The cost of living is just 9% higher than the US average. A median home in the state costs about $232,400, and the tuition fees are below the US average expenditure. All these factors make Virginia a stress-free zone.

People who live in stress-free areas are bound to be healthier than those in other states. In such a case, medical insurance and paid checkups are very affordable for almost all the people in this State. Life in Virginia is good and hence people living in this state are likely to be healthy.

Race and ethnicity: While it might seem like a bed of roses, Virginia has serious thorns for some people. The Northern part of the state is a multi-racial metropolis. However, the Southern part that includes Richmond is very racist. It is one of the few places where the Confederate flag is raised; the KKK club calls it home. This level of racial profiling means that the people of races other than White are unwelcomed to stay. In March 2013, most Latino children attended increasingly segregated schools where there was likely less than 10% White student population (Chandler, 2013).

The facts above show that non-Whites living in Virginia should brace for racial discrimination, despite the fact that it is illegal in the country. Racial segregation has adverse effects on people’s health. Living in highly segregated areas is like constantly getting negative energy, which leads to stress and other psychological conditions such as depression, which often leads to diseases. Racial profiling is a social determinant of health since it results in the fear of discrimination and stress, which are unhealthy.

Income inequality and affluence: The state was classified as the best place to earn a living in 2012. It was relegated to the second position on the list trailing Washington in 2013. What is remarkable about this State is that it offered above average income for employees yet the cost of living fell below the national average (Smith, 2013). The increasing costs of living across America brought its average cost of living just slightly higher than the cost of living in 2015. The cost of living in the state stands at 108.30, making it the cheapest in the tri-state.

Social capital: Racism, ethnicity or chauvinism or any other form of segregation is an enemy to effective social capital value. The strength of the social capital lies in people collaborating to solve problems and alleviate each other’s pains. However, any prejudicial treatment worsens people’s feelings. Grouping according to whatever characteristics is a reaction to the fear of discrimination, and, therefore, the need to want to belong. Such is the case that happens in highly segregated areas, where people of a certain class or attribute feel superior to others. The ones deemed inferior are vulnerable to sickness and physical harm. Considering that Virginia’s index of segregation is high, there are high risks of psychological conditions and weak immunity.

Lifestyle and neighborhood characteristics: Due to the Virginia’s state of affluence, the state is certainly offering the best places to raise a family. First, there are extremely low cases of insecurity. Second, schools are within very affordable ranges for high-quality tuition, and the availability of many hospitals makes living more comfortable. A high number of social amenities coupled with high incomes and low costs of living are a sign that people can get involved in whatever co-curricular activities and socialize over sports. This kind of lifestyle is enviable and stands out as healthy.

Neighborhood and lifestyle determinants of the health include health of neighboring families, income level, and levels of insecurity, availability of social amenities and hospitals, and ability to follow one’s dreams. All of these attributes form part of one’s package in Virginia.

Medical care:  Virginia has 130 hospitals, 4 of which are nationally ranked. Apart from the four, 15 hospitals meet the high-performance national standards. It means that medical care exists for a variety of diseases and conditions that could occur in the United States or any other country on earth.

There are health plans available to the people of Virginia in the form of Medicaid and Medicare. The former is an insurance program for the older people, 65 and above, who have begun to develop chronic medical conditions but qualify for no other medical healthcare plan including the Medicaid. Also, children qualify for an insurance coverage plan that is offered under the FAMIS Plus (VHI, 2015). These are three medical plans that give the reprieve to the people of Virginia; all citizens fall into the three categories; children, adults and the aged.

The social determinants of health are very important since they affect a person directly. Human beings are social creatures who rely on the community for a sense of belonging, admiration, mutual support, and progression. Any social construct that disregards these things threatens people and makes them vulnerable to physical, emotional or psychological disturbance, which lead to poor health. Based on the above analysis, the place that offers the most comfortable and hence healthy lifestyle on the social determinant scale is Washington, followed by Virginia and then Maryland.

Environmental Determinants of Health Disparities

As stated before, one’s environment is crucial to a person’s health; reason being that it determines whatever resources and vulnerabilities to which a person is exposed. A psychological notion that a person is born with an empty slate but the environment shapes whatever kind of people they become is enough to tell the importance of an environment.

Pollution levels: As stated before, one’s environment is crucial to a person’s health; reason being that it determines the resources and vulnerabilities to which a person is exposed. The Washington State has few manufacturing industries that could pollute the environment adversely. There are three major industries that drive the country: Manufacturing, Agriculture, and Energy. Highly Mechanized Agriculture is a stronghold of the state. The farms consume a lot of fertilizer, which puts it at a danger of land pollution, which could eventually turn into water pollution if quality checks are not regularly done. According to the Washington Air Quality Assurance, the main pollutants in the area are particle pollution, ozone, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide.  A psychological notion that a person is born with an empty slate but the environment shapes whatever kind of people they become is enough to tell the importance of an environment. (WAQA, 2015). Any forms of particles found in the air are harmful to one’s health. Washington deals with other forms of non-point pollution, stormwater, oil spillage and industrial waste discharges.

Despite the strict limits on emissions by the United States government, Maryland still gets power from coal. Coal emits smoke after burning. It is a major cause of concern since the smoke is highly toxic (Wheeler, 2012).

In 2012, Virginia featured second for high water pollution levels. Various toxic chemicals from industries are often disposed off to the waterways; 18 million pounds of chemicals. James River had about 1.1 million pounds of pollutants according to a survey conducted in 2010 (wtvrerikaneddenien, 2012).

The high levels of pollution in the tri-state make the residents vulnerable to various respiratory, malignant, and other physical complications. Of the three, Virginia is the worst state in terms of pollution. Despite its gains on the social determinants of health, pollution drags its health index downwards.

Access to clean water: Air and water pollution are significant in determining the health status of a place. However, there are certain checks and balances that could help to reduce casualties of pollution. The quality of drinking water directly determines health in the short and long term since it is taken into the body. Any forms of toxicity or pathogens endanger a person’s health.

The water-handling in the tri-state is sophisticated and ensures that people get access to clean water. This advanced system of water purification comes with the fact that the tri-state houses the most affluent people in the country, and there is high competition and money to provide the best services.

Access to clean water was on the list of the federal government’s plans, which was executed efficiently and successfully. Water-borne diseases, which were a major challenge in the early 20th Century, have dropped to nearly zero cases at the moment (CDC, 2015). The United States of America is one of the places that offer the most efficient clean water distribution systems in the world.

Safety of houses: It is obvious that houses are huge determinants of a person’s or family’s health. Good housing results in the relative calm, which is always absent in the lives of homeless people. Considering the statistics of the rate of unemployment and levels of affluence of the tri-state, the larger majority of residents in the tri-state can afford good houses that offer safety for their families and domestic workers.

Transport systems: The transport system is a major source of pollution. Noise and air pollution get large contributions from the transport system. The tri-state is highly urbanized, meaning that almost every homestead owns a vehicle or more. The emissions from the vehicles constitute carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are major air pollutants. The busy airports also produce large decibels of sound. The emissions produced by vehicles have been linked, by volumes of research, to heart problems, asthma triggers, and cancer among other health conditions.

The transport system of urbanized areas makes them a major health hazard. Consequently, living in any parts of the tri-state increases the vulnerability of exposure to disease-causing emissions.

Exposure to radiation: The USA is central to radiation emission tests, as evident from the 20th Century shows. Maryland has recorded toxic radiations from the Japanese reactors in 2011 (Roylance, 2011). Washington and Virginia have recorded very low radiation levels in the recent past. However, due to past activities that involved nuclear reaction in the United States, all citizens of the country suffer a 40% higher chance of contracting, and a 20% vulnerability to death from cancer than other nations in the world (Roylance, 2011).


The above discussion analyzes carefully the social and environmental determinants of health that residents of the tri-state face. There are similarities in some cases, yet distinctive disparities are also visible in both categories of determinants. Concerning the discussion, I find credible reasons to believe that social determinants have a greater impact on the health of individuals in the area than environmental factors. The states have been ranked from various surveys as being either best or worst in certain regards on a national basis in comparison to other states. The area is a prime location of residence, and the decision on which of the three states offers the best life depends on the perspective of a person’s needs. However, one fact is that as long as affluence remains the biggest determinant of a healthy lifestyle, the Tristate remains lucrative as a potential home.


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Essay Example: New Venture Strategies for EasyJet Fri, 02 Oct 2015 14:18:01 +0000 Can’t imagine your life without planes? Then this sample essay is just for you!

The person of company’s owners is a significant factor in the company’s activity and success. The owner has very important rights: to define the realms for his venture’s activity, to dispose its capital, to employ the workers, particularly it concerns the employment of directors or managers.

The responsibilities of the owner are to keep his enterprise on living, in other words, to eliminate the possibility of bankrupt, to maintain the employers and to present the company on the market. It is important, because the owners of the actions and other “valuable papers” of the company are in fact the owners of enterprise, and like each another property, the company is lead by them. MBI (Management Buyin) and MBO (Management Buyout) are the forms of stakeholders organising, and what is more important, this isn’t a simple dispensation of actions between some people or organisations, but it is the strict division of stakeholders, what defines much the further company’s activity.
aircraft picture

The issue of choice between MBI and MBO is principal for such reasons. The top stakeholders groups usually define the direction of the enterprise’s activity, and they are the indispensable elements for the creating of the company. The stakeholders give their capital to some people, who organises the production process, but the real owners of the enterprise are the stakeholders[1]. The importance of such mean of company’s organisation raises, because in the contemporary world a single person is unable to create a strong, famous enterprise-giant, though the human progress, the cooperation of all the world population and the forming of world community requires such a companies[2].

The stakeholders may be divided on the single persons and some organisations; usually their activity is closely concerned to the company, which stakes they take. However in the era, when there are so many links between absolutely different economic (and political) subjects, there is no need to be the professional doctor for possessing the medical company – it is more important to possess the capital and be ready to invest it.

Firstly we must investigate the common features, positive and negative aspects of MBI and MBO. Management Buyin has such advantages (from the company’s point of view):

1)  it allows to find big sums of capital (the managers of one enterprise can possess less money, than businessmen from outside) for the company’s development;

2)  it minimise the risk of bankrupting – the managers invest almost all their money, and they have no more capital, which can be useful in extra-situations, and the stakeholders invest only a part from all their property, and they have another money for extra-cases;

3)  Strategic reasons – the vendor may not wish competitors to be in control;

4)  Confidentiality – the vendor may not wish to let competitors have access to sensitive information that would be disclosed during a trade sale process.

The advantages of MBI are disadvantages of MBO. Both these forms of management concern the same points, but each one has different answer to the same challenges. Both MBO and MBI are the systems, so that we can’t eliminate some features of this system, otherwise it will lose its sense. That’s why when we speak about advantages of one form, we must take into consideration that another form of management has the disadvantages in these positions. So, the negative features of MBO are the absences of the positive trends, described higher. And vice versa, the negative positions in MBI are opposite to the positive features of MBO.

So, let us turn to them:

1)  when the managers are the owners of the company, where they work, their interest in growth of incomes and company’s development is higher, than in MBI system – actually, they rally understand, that they are working on their own benefit;

2)  the managers always know, what capital they possess, so that they can manage the company effectively;

3)  the process of making decisions is rather simple – there is no need to hold the council of stakeholders, from one hand, and from another, the managers are sole to make the decisions and to embody them, so that the management is easy and flexible;

4)  the income is concentrated in the hands of managers, and the possibility of its elimination from the company’s developing process is low;

5)  the owner-manager always knows the problems of company and ways of its solving.

The biggest problem is the impossibility of combining the best and most convenient features from different systems into one form of management. However after defining the positive and negative points in MBO and MBI we must turn to EasyJet Company. In principle, it will be useful to study the properties of this company as well as the contemporary situation on the European market of plane transporting.

The growth of quantity of passengers (on 39,6% for two last years – from 6,7 mln per year to 9,3 mln per year), the growth of load factor (on 1,1 %), the introducing of 5 new routes in this year draw the increasing of value of company’s action[3]. By the way, from the year of its foundation (1998) the capital and passengers turn in 6 times (from 15 points to 90), and the last year this index was 25 %[4]. Hence, there are more capitalists, ready to invest their money in this company that is the position on the benefit of MBI system.

From other hand, the financing of the company fell from 764 mln Euros to 692 mln, or on 9%[5]. It may be explained by the common decreasing of the passenger’s quantity in the air of Europe in this year, because the report about 2003 doesn’t include the summer period, when the level of load factor is much higher. Another point is that the airline-online company always has a limit of developing, because there is a competition in this area, especially in Europe. It must be admitted, that EasyJet has less capital and passengers, as British airlines of French airlines, for example, so that it needs much subsidiary resources for the equal competition with these companies.

The prospects of EasyJet are, from one hand, rather perspective, and from another, they are limited, so that there is no need to apply a large capital for its developing. It would be better to develop gradually. The strong and more powerful competitors eliminate the possibility of fast developing. The accumulation of large capital is the main advantage of MBI system, but it is impossible to use this opportunity, that’s why the MBI system is less suitable for EasyJet, than MBO. From another hand, the airline companies require high quality specialists in its management, their role is big, and the situation, where the managers are simultaneously the owners of the company, increases much the interest in effective work, what is very important for EasyJet as well as for every other airline company in Europe.

List of notes:

[1] Galkin V. (1998) “Stakeholders for international business management“.

[2] Frank S. Zarb (2000) “School of business. Stakeholders and their role in company’s management”.

[3] EasyJet plc FY 2003 Interim Results.

[4]The same source.

[5]The same source.

Another resources used:

  1. EasyJet plc Interim Report from March 31 2003.
  2. EasyJet plc Interim Report from March 31 2002.
  3. EasyJet plc Annual Report and Accounts 2002.
  4. EasyJet plc Annual Report and Accounts 2001.
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Sample Essays Collection: Globalization and Its Effect on People Tue, 29 Sep 2015 14:13:07 +0000 Globalization is not a new topic on our blog. You probably remember our post on how to write a globalization essay. And now we’re sharing an example of a definition essay about globalization. We hope you’ll find it helpful.


Globalization is a term, often used as a name for a wide range of different processes and phenomenon in the cultural, social, economical and political life of civilization. That is the reason why it’s very difficult to explain the essence of this term for it very much relays on the context. For example, J. Soros defines it in this way “Globalization is an overused word, which can have very different meanings… we will consider that this term means the globalization of financial markets and the growing dominant influence of the global financial markets and transnational companies on the national economics. In this sense we should distinguish globalization from the free market economy, which doesn’t have such great consequences for particular countries”. This definition concerns only economical side of the problem and in fact it says only that globalization is globalization.

Globe as a Symbol of GlobalizationSo, before giving the definition of this term, let’s name some of its components of the sense, which don’t depend on the context in which the term is used. First, globalization is a process. Second, this process concerns only the activity of human and the society. Third, as it is obvious from the word “global”, it is an all-embracing process. Forth, the specific aspect of this process is the growth of the number of contacts between people, the products, elements and consequences of their activity.

Putting all this together we can get the idea of the essence of globalization. We will not be able to define this phenomenon when we are faced with it in real life until we analyze it in the context of its influences and effects in the culture, politics, economy, society, ecology, etc. In our main part we will analyze the next points:

1) the premises and the reasons of globalization, most significant effects and its role in economy; 2) the meaning for the culture and the influences of the globalization on the ecology of human omniscience. In the conclusion we’ll summarize the main points and outline the main findings.

The premises and reasons of globalization.

There is a widely spread view that the main reason of globalization as a historical process is a unique development of economical relationships between the countries. This development is a consequence of the innovations and the technological progress of civilization (e.g. the fast means of communication, new informational technologies and the fast transport). Due to this the needs of industry are growing for they require cheaper raw materials. Raw materials and component parts are often transferred through many countries before they turn to the final product. The situation with the energy sources is the same; only few countries have them but the whole world needs them. In a word, a free market tries to involve more and more participants, and in the end it reaches the worldwide level. The specific feature of the globalized financial markets is that they provide the free movement of the financial capital.

All of the above is from my point of view to be defined as the premises of globalization. We shouldn’t mistake the premises for the reasons. For example we can accept the development of the informational technologies as a reason for globalization, though on the other side we can say that globalization creates the atmosphere, were fast means of communication should be developed. So I would say that all the points mentioned above are not the reasons of globalization, but the factors, that create the possibilities for the further movement of globalization process. Moreover the interaction between the process and its factors is mutual.

As for the reasons we can summarize different points of view to the following: globalization is a side effect of the process of forming “an open society”. The more “opened” the society gets under the influence of democratization the less connections it establishes inside, turning into big synergetic system. For example the global financial markets are comparatively young, their development starts from the oil crisis at the beginning of the 70’s of XX century and the invention of eurodollar. At the 80’s, when the ruling persons were Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, the development rates of the global financial markets began to grow, and after the collapse of the USSR at 1989 they became really global. That is to say the collapse of the “close society” of the USSR gave the push to the process of the globalization and immersed the groups of societies into the world community.

What is the role of the national countries in this process? The main danger of globalization is the  destruction of political power in all its forms: national governments, economics, democracy as non-rational system of life governance on the planet. All systems of power were traditionally built up on the human achievements, which can be named in the terms of technical systems: the sense of human life, his values and the aim of his life. People who are deprived of these things can not be the objects of power and do not obey. It seemed at first that the globalization gave the elite the unlimited possibilities for manipulating the mass conscience. But in reality masses found in globalization the possibilities for not obeying the power.

Globalization allows using its instruments not only to those who really created them but also to those who know how they function. So we can make the conclusion that as long as national governments exist they will keep trying to use the effects of globalization for their own aims. This means that political interests will be the reasons in the process of the globalization. It is possible that this process will lead us to appearance of the new forms of political governance.

How globalization effects people.

Let me start with an example, which is a piece of irony, but illustrates the situation in a perfect way.

“Question: What best exemplifies globalization? Answer: Princess Diana’s death. Question: Why? Answer: An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a French tunnel, driving a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was high on Scottish whiskey, followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles, treated by an American doctor, using Brazilian medicines!”

Globalization gave us goods, in some sense it made our life more comfortable and convenient. Globalization gave us new opportunities for innovation and enterprise and increased a global economical growth. But globalization does have the negative aspects. First, it is predisposed to the crisises, second, it increases the inequality between the poor and the rich both inside the country and between them, third, it causes the wrong distribution of recourses between private and government interests (effective governance).

The effect of globalization of social and cultural relations lies in the change of the role of the human in the social structure. In the “closed society” one person is connected with a limited group of people and almost has no influence on the other groups, in the global society every single person is more or less connected with all other people at the same time. This also means that the better some people in this society live the worse the other do. But there is a different point of view on this problem: “Personally, I do not believe that those [poor] people are victims of globalization. Their problem is not that they are included in the global market but, in most cases, that they are excluded from it.” (Kofi Annan)

So as we see, in fact globalization itself has no good or bad effect on people. Globalization is just a powerful instrument of influence on other people. So the effect of globalization will depend on how we use this instrument. The problem mainly is that many people are not able to perceive it in an adequate way.


Let me summarize the main points concerning the definition of globalization and its essence.

  1. Globalization is a term, often used as a name for a wide range of different processes and phenomenon in the cultural, social, economical and political life of civilization.
  2. Globalization is an all-embracing process which concerns the growth of the number of contacts between people, the products, elements and consequences of their activity.
  3. Nowadays there are lots of factors which create wide range of possibilities for the development of globalization, but they are not its exceptional reasons.
  4. We can point out the sources of the process of globalization only, but we can hardly explain the reasons of this process in some other way but as a historical necessity within the convenient circumstances.
  5. Globalization is a process which can be investigated on the macro levels only.
  6. Effect of the influence of globalization on people can not be defined univocally. It lasts only for last 20-30 years so its too early to talk abut some final results and consequences.

From what is known for now, we can distinguish the following effects of globalization:

  1. It makes general social system more sensitive to crisises.
  2. It leads to the disproportion of the distribution of resources.
  3. It requires the change in the human conscience in accordance with the new reality it creates.
  4. Globalization can not be defined in a positive or negative way.

Works cited

  1. Crafts Nicholas. Globalization and Growth in the Twentieth Century, IMF Working Paper, WP/00/44, Washington DC, April 2000.
  2. Friedman Thomas (2000) The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Farrar, Straus & Giroux
  3. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? IMF Staff.
  4. Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Laurell Ritchie, Michele Swenarchuk, and Leah Vosko. Globalization Some Implications & Strategies For Women.
  5. Porter Keith. Globalization: Good or Bad?
  6. Porter Keith. Poverty or prosperity. Is Either Caused by Globalization?
  7. Porter Keith. What is Globalization? New era replaces Cold War and Space Age.

Essay writing has never been an easy task for most students. But you no longer need to write those essays by yourself. The help of our essay writers is available 24/7. Just send your request!

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Management Information Systems (Sample Essay) Thu, 24 Sep 2015 11:05:56 +0000 More and more college students want to improve their essay writing skills. And reading sample essays of high quality can be a great solution for many.


1. INTRODUCTION: History of development of Management Information Systems


2.1. E-commerce in business environment of tourist company “Europe-Group”

2.2. MIS as an effective tool of market competitiveness



Computer MonitorNowadays modern companies, actively participating in business market relations, meet the necessity to implement Management Information Systems (MIS). Huge amount of paperwork, accounting, interactive mode, work with databases, paperless processing of documents, updating of databases can not be possible without modern computer technologies. (John Ward, 1995) There are many types of information systems used in business environment of leading companies, such as: database processing systems, marketing systems.   Management Information Systems are any systems, which provide people with information and data about business operations carried out by the organization.  MIS is used in business activity of the stuff, top management and clients. The assistance to all of them if effected through efficient data processing in transactions. (John Ward, 1995)

Management Information Systems are constantly developing. First of them are dated in the 50-th of the twenties century. These systems were designed to effect accounts processing and salary management. It resulted in some reduction of expenses and time for preparation of paper documents. With their further development information systems were capable of making automatic accounting for the organization. Microprocessors and interactive displays were built in modern information systems devices. (John Ward, 1995)

By the end of the 70-th in the offices of any organization there were applied various computer and telecommunication technologies which have expanded a scope of information systems. Text processing, e-mail communication started to be widely used as means of the administrative control, supporting and accelerating decision-making process. (John Ward, 1995)

The new stage in the Information systems development was achieved by the end of the 80-th. Many companies have discovered the strategic power of implementing computer technologies in their activity, which could timely provide necessary information, create new goods and services, find new commodity markets and new partners. All this innovations helped to increase the competitiveness of the company in the market. (John Ward, 1995)

Since the middle of the 90-th plenty of business organizations have started to use on-line commerce. Following large companies, producing software equipment, companies that produce traditional goods started to use e-commerce in their activity. Plenty of shops selling books, CD, food and other products through Internet have appeared during the last years of the 90-th. (John Ward, 1995)

Realizing the essential need for implementing various MIS in order to have market competitive strength, our company, which specializes in provision of tourist services, has been intensively using such means of modern business development.


Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is an acceleration of the majority of business processes in which information is transferred directly to the addressee, passing a stage of creation of a paper copy of any document at each stage. (John Ward, 1995) The system of e-commerce in our organization can be divided into two classes: the system of retail trade through Internet and the system of interactions with business partners.

The advantages of implementation of e-commerce in our company are obvious:

– the efficiency of the access to information, especially in international trade;

– the cycle of sales is considerably decreased as there is no need to enter received documents each time;

– costs for information exchange are reduced due to using more cheap means of communication;

– implementation of Internet technologies and e-commerce gives company the possibility to be more open towards its clients;

– helps the company in the easy way to inform its consumers of new services;

– gives the company possibility to use more sales channels, for example through on-line shop. (Parker, Charles, 1993)

The implementation of modern Internet technologies in our business is not only the creation of the web site or electronic catalogue with the possibility of customizing services on-line,  it means using technologies and the collected experience for deep reconstruction of business operations through Internet. Electronic commerce is a process of earning money with use of Internet – technologies. (Parker, Charles, 1993)

The success of building the model of electronic commerce is based on tree main principles:

– the choice of correct technological platform;

– the availability of a competitive product;

– the availability of necessary infrastructure and business processes. (Parker, Charles, 1993)

First of all the implementation of e-commerce is necessary for our company, because we have developed regional partnership network, therefore it can provide for a considerable reduction of costs in ordering process.

Some years ago, when the e-commerce technologies were not so widely implemented in the present business environment it was like a game where there are no guarantees, plenty of players and no one knows whether he is going to remain in the game. However the game field of Internet-commerce has considerably changed, and these changes are irreversible. Recent interrogation of more than 100 companies with staff of more than 500 persons carried out by Zona Research, has shown that about 80 per cent of them use Internet for marketing, and 10 per cent are already engaged in electronic trade. (Parker, Charles, 1993) This research has also shown, that almost 45 per cent  of these companies plan to begin realization of programs of sales through Internet in the nearest years. According to Grthner Group investigations the growth of e-commerce in big companies from 8 per cent in 1996 up to 63 per cent in year 2000. (Parker, Charles, 1993)

Since in our age information is the most valuable asset one can possess, we certainly have considered this information for our company when first started implementing achievements of modern technology.

One of the essential problems for successful e-commerce in our company was the creation of necessary infrastructure. The basic network infrastructure should have been advanced in order to meet rigid requirements of electronic commerce.  Creation or modernization of a server of databases, installation of more powerful sluice or renting more capacious channel should have been demanded with the purpose of increase in throughput.

The possibilities for creation of corporate management systems, implementation of modern information technologies have given a great impulse to the development of these trends during the last years. The role of planning department in the company has increased. It turned to be the analytical and methodological center of project management in the company.  Efficient project management system is the criteria of organization level of the company and the level of its maturity. It gives the following advantages to the company:

– implementation of  management information systems, uniform methodology, creates corporate culture of project management, basing on the uniform approaches, databases and generalization of the saved up experience;

– the unified approaches to the project management allow to work not  only on separate projects, but also to work on programs, including  several subprojects and have the “big picture” of all projects of the company, despite the fact that each project is supervised by it’ own manager;

– “multi-project” management helps to trace the interaction of the projects and manage the company resources efficiently, optimize cash flow of the projects;

– management information systems can help to analyze the effectiveness of the project, systemize and accumulate experience of its implementation so that this knowledge can be used for carrying out future projects. This is so called “Memory of the company”. (Parker, Charles, 1993)

Today information technologies in our company influence not only data processing but also the way of effecting the work by the staff, the service itself and the competitiveness of the company. In most organizations information is the basic resource and information processing is the matter of strategic importance. Our company could not reach appropriate level of competitiveness unless it could provide its customers with the level of service, which could only be possible with implementation of high technologies.

Information systems serve for providing all necessary information to managing staff. In the common case the Management Information System includes four basic subsystems:

– the system of transaction processing;

– the system of accounts management;

– office information system;

– the system of “support for taking decisions”, which can include information of the manager, expert system.

Our company use Management Information Systems for various purposes. They increase the labor efficiency, providing for more quick and cost-efficient job doing, taking correct decisions. Management Information System help to increase the service quality for customers and clients, create and update the products as well as fortify the company position in the market. It is as well the way to increase the level of company competitiveness through cost reduction, quality improvement and efficient projects management. (Bentley, Trevor J., 1986)


Development and implementation of Management Information Systems in modern business environment helped to provide access to information to all groups of the company staff. The tasks which in the early days could by performed by a highly qualified personnel with the automation of production and management processes became possible to do for  everyone having the slightest computer literacy. Now almost everyone working in the company has access to vital and precise data which he or she had never had before the era of wide computerization.

Management Information System serve and e-commerce have played tremendous role in business progress of our company and helped to accumulate information, protect it and use it in the most efficient way.

Reference List:

  1. Ward, John. Principles of Information Systems Management.- Routledge, 1995.
  2. Parker, Charles. Management Information Systems: strategy and action.-2nd ed ,- McGraw-Hill, 1993.
  3. Bentley, Trevor J.- Management Information Systems and data processing.-2nd ed.-Holt Riherhart & Winston, 1986
  4. «Network Magazine», №10, 1999
  5. «PC WEEK», №6, 1998

This piece of writing was kindly provided by

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Sample Analytical Essay: Accounting Mon, 21 Sep 2015 09:08:19 +0000 This sample essay may be useful for all the students studying accounting and economics in general.

Remember – the more sample essays you read the better essays you’ll be able to write. But if you feel you’re not ready to write an essay today – just tell us “write my essay“, and we’ll have it written for you!

Brief information about the company

Accounting WorkColes Myer Ltd. is Australia’s largest non-government company with the history of more than 100 years old. Its chairman Mr. Richard Allert and Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director Mr. John Fletcher operate around 1800 stores of the company in Australia and New Zealand. The company as one of the country’s largest corporate philanthropists employ over 160,000 staff. Coles, Bi-Lo, Myer, Grace Bros, Megamart, Kmart, Target, Liquorland, Officeworks and Emerging Businesses are the brands which are operated by Coles Myer Ltd. It has over 580,000 shareholders, the majority of whom are non-employee shareholders, “mums and dads”, holding 5,000 or less shares. Coles Myer Ltd is listed on the stock exchanges of Australia, London, New York and New Zealand. Expenses on merchandise and services are around $19 billion which are ordered in over 61,000 suppliers.


The year 2001 demonstrated decrease in profitability of Total group sales from 24,168.0 $M in 2000 to 23,779.6 $M in 2001. Increase in Food & Liquor sales to 14,468.2 $M in 2001 from 14,221.0 $M in 2000 and e.colesmyer to 272.1$M from 195.5$M in 2000 was compensated and reduced with the fall in sales of General Merchandise & Apparel and from 9,751$M in 2000 to 9,039.3 $M in 2001.

Growth of Actual – equivalent weeks fell from 6.2 % in 2000 to 5.5 % in 2001. Net profit is characterized with the decrease in its rate for both years, but in 2001 the result is less than previous. Thus, it fell from 300.7 $M in 2000 ((25.8)%-decrease) to 150.8$M in 2001 ((49.9)%- decrease).

The situation changed for better in 2002 as Net Profit increased to 353.8 $M which is 134,6% towards the previous year.


Operating cash flow before interest and tax reduced in 2000 from 1,082.5 $M to 941.7 $M in 2001 and increased in2002 to 1,280.4 $M. Distributions received, interest and tax led to the rate of operating cash flow again from reduction in 2001 to 672.2 $M from 729.8$M of the previous year to increase of its rate to 1,118.0 in 2002.

Dividends of the company where 285.3$M in 2002, 365.1 $M in 2001 and 254.2$M in 2000.  Thus, a company improved its situation on dividends in 2001 but lost its position in 2002.

As to shareholder value, ordinary share price it increased in 2002 comparing to 2001 but still could not get the rate of 200.  Their value was $6.45, $6.10 and $6.64 accordingly. Market capitalization demonstrated its continuously increasing rate up to 8,403.2$M in 2002.

Net debt/net debt and equity (capital employed) and Net gearing ratio demonstrated their rate on reduction. First on continued to fell from 38.7 % to 27.3 % and to 17.5 % for three years. The second index of financial strength of the company decreased from 64.5 % to 57.8 % and to 55.4 % for the same three years.


Net assets employed before tax balances was 3,994.2$M in 2002, 4,420.2$M in 2001 and 4,588.7$M in 2000. Employed capital reduced from 4,535.6$M, 4,467.4 $M to 4,009.7 for three last years. Net debt was high in 2002 (8,024.4$M), less in 2001 (8,011.1$M) and 7,876.0 in 2000.  Total Capital Expenditure also fell from 707.6 $M to 701.0$M and to 617.1$M.


Summing up, the year 2001 for Coles Myer Ltd. was worse for investing comparing to 2000. Indexes of liquidity, profitability and financial stability demonstrate that 2002 was better to invest in the company than 2001.

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Sample Essays: A Reaction Essay on Otto Kernberg Views of Bordeline Personality Thu, 17 Sep 2015 16:24:51 +0000 Do you enjoy writing essays? If so, you’re so lucky! Many students hate doing this and even prefer to order their academic papers from a trusted research paper writing service. But here’s a sample essay for you to improve your essay writing skills.

mental_healthThe concept of Borderline Personality Organisation (BPO) arose in the 1950’s to account for clients who could neither be classified as neurotic nor as psychotic. Though Knight (1953) introduced the term within this context, it was Stern (1938) who first coined the term, categorizing clients who had previously been described as ‘as-if personalities’, ‘latent schizophrenics’, ‘pseudopsychopathic schizophrenics’, ‘pseudoneurotic schizophrenics’, ‘sub-clinical schizophrenics’ and ‘occult schizophrenics’. [1]

Otto Kernberg’s formulation (1984, 1989) of BPO is psychodynamic and structural. He proposes three main features of BPO [2]:

  • Identity diffusion
  • Primitive defensive operations
  • Intact reality testing

Kernberg posits these features to result from pathological object relations. Which in this instance refer to the internal object world. This theory concerns itself with the internalisation of external relations and suggests that the difficulties experienced by individuals with BPO result from a failure to integrate intrapsychic representations of self and others. [2]

Furthermore, these aspects of self and other are defensively separated into “all good” and “all bad” representations. The individual presents with a chaotic, fragmented two-dimensional view of self and others. Emotional subtlety, sophisticated role-relatedness and psychological depth are all missing from the representational world of the borderline individual. [2]

In the psychotherapeutic relationship, self and object representations may be activated in the transference. The processes of projection and identification will be operating – thus a devalued depreciated self representation will be projected onto the therapist whilst the client identifies with a harsh critical object representation, hence the notion of ‘identification with the aggressor’. The affective link may be anger or fear. Typical self-object representations activated in the transference as shown below. [3]


Destructive bad infant

Controlled enraged child

Unwanted child

Defective worthless child

Abused victim

Sexually assaulted prey

Deprived child

Out of control angry child

Naughty sexually exciting child

Dependent gratified child


Punitive sadistic parent

Controlling parent

Uncaring, self involved parent

Contemptuous parent

Sadistic attacker


Selfish parent

Impotent parent

Castrating parent

Doting admiring parent

In working with clients with borderline psychopathology the therapist must be able to tolerate intense, rapidly shifting affect within the relationship. Kernberg (1984, 1989) focuses on transference analysis within a supportive setting, i.e. working in the ‘here and now’ along the transference – counter-transference paradigm. His primary focus via clarification, confrontation and interpretation is the integration the split internal object as it becomes manifest transactionally in the psychotherapeutic relationship. [3]

Otto Kernberg has postulated a theory of BPD based on a phenomenon he describes as splitting. Splitting appears to be the main defense mechanism of the borderline. A borderline perceives people in terms of black and white or as either good or bad objects. The main problem in handling borderlines is to cope with their unrealistic views of other people – and in their attempts to create self-fulfilling prophecies to make the world fit with his or her perceptions. If a borderline perceives you as a good object, he or she will go to great lengths in providing situations or interpretations compatible with this view. [4]


  1. Kernberg, O.F.; Selzer, M.A.; Applebaum, A.H.; Carr, A.C. & Koenigsburg, U.W. (1989) Psychodynamic Psychotherapy of Borderline Patients.
  2. Nigg, J. T., Lohr, N. E., Westen, D., Gold, L. J., & Silk, K. R. (1992). Malevolent object representations in borderline personality disorder and major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 61-67.
  3. Greene, L. R., Rosenkrantz, J., & Muth, D.Y. (1986). Borderline defenses and countertransference: Research findings and implications. Psychiatry, 49, 253-264.
  4. Westen, D. (1990). Towards a revised theory of borderline object relations: Contributions of empirical research. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 71, 661-693.
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Sample Essays: Divorce and Its Effects on Children Mon, 14 Sep 2015 15:30:33 +0000 Students are often given writing assignments. And quite often they have to write essays on social topics. Below is the one about divorce.

It is important for people to realize that they are not alone. However, generalizing divorces cannot be accomplished, each one is unique.

lonely kid-parents divorcedI am 15 years old now, and a product of  a bitter divorce (when I was only 10). My parents fought – both mentally and physically – in the presence of my sister and I. Although they tried to avoid such altercations when we were near, it was impossible to do so.

Throughout the divorce, both my sister and I gained a substantial amount of weight, making a social life somewhat of a challenge. With problems at home, no child wants to face obnoxious kids at school – they begin to feel like everyone is “out to get them”. Even my weekends were taken with visits to psychologists, family counselor’s, and the judge’s chambers. As a result of my parent’s divorce, our entire family unity was shattered.

When my parents criticized each other, I couldn’t help but think of the imperfect background I had sprung from. That is, until I realized no marriage is perfect. I have learned to remember the good parts of my childhood – vacations without fights, family outings, among other things.

With my life finally back in order, nothing else seems to have evolved at all. My sister still hates my dad, will not go on visitations, and my mom continues to complain about how bad her life has become. Clearly, it is hard to benefit from a divorce. But, that all is decided by how it is handled. I love my parents very much. I refused to listen as each one explained the horrible things that their spouse had done to them. The most important thing for a child to understand is that they must make the difference. Don’t just let everything happen, make what you want to happen really occur.

Today, my father is distanced from the family. I bet there are still times he thinks, if I had only stuck it out, I would have a real family life now. Which, he doesn’t. I still wish that my parents had never divorced. I think it affects kids more than is even realized. It cuts into the development of the children relationship with the world around him/her. If the child is particularly sensitive, it can cause more serious problems, like mental problems and a lot of problems with men. 1

Five years later, I think I can say I accept their divorce. I don’t agree with it, and I still grieve the loss of my family. Some days I don’t think about it any more, but some days a childhood memory resurfaces and I’m sad all over again.

The bottom line is, parental divorce is a difficult, depressing experience no matter the age of the children involved. And if you’re an adult whose parents are divorcing, and you recognize yourself in any of these words, you’re not alone.


  1. The Children’s Society (1988) Focus on Families. Divorce and its Effects on Children. London: The Children’s Society.
  2. Burrett, J. (1993) To and Fro Children: A Guide to Successful Parenting after Divorce. London: Thorson’s.
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How to Write a Literature Review for a Research Paper Sat, 12 Sep 2015 07:17:21 +0000 Knowing how to write literature review for a research paper is critical for every college student. Writing an undergraduate thesis is often a prerequisite for graduation because it summarizes everything you have learned during the last four years. The literature review, however, is one of the most challenging elements of the research paper to write.

Literature to Be Reviewed for a Research PaperOne major problem is it gets easily confused with an annotated bibliography. While both provide summaries of literature, the former simply deals with individual texts while the latter aims to synthesize the entire body of relevant and updated literature. Another challenge is that writing a review of literature in research takes a lot of work. Granted, you have to read at least five to 10 bodies of work related to your thesis topic. You also have to flesh out your findings for you to be able to summarize them into a review.

The following guide is intended to help you learn how to write a literature review for a research paper.

1. Identify the literature.

Everything that is written about your topic can be used as literature. This covers books, theses, dissertations, journal articles, newspaper articles, historical accounts, government records, etc. The important thing is to look for literature that is relevant to your subject of research. Online databases make it easy to search for literature to be mentioned in your study. Begin your search with a general descriptor, altering your search to include results where the descriptor appears only in the title, abstract, review of literature or in all elements of the text. This allows you to find out if your subject is too broad or too narrow and make the necessary adjustments. Take note, however, that findings must be up-to-date. The rule of thumb is to use text published within the last five years. You may also include classic studies but you have to emphasize that these are landmark studies and point out how it influenced the direction of research in the area.

2. Analyze the literature.

Find a way to take organized notes because you will need them when you plan to write the review. You can do it the old-fashioned pen-and-paper way or use a note-taking software such as RefWorks, Inspiration or Excel, whatever works for you. There are several points for analysis to take note of. It is useful to group the texts according to categories first, such as type of literature, objective of the study, research design or conclusion. Define the key terms and note any differences within the texts. Also, highlight any statistics and quotations you might wish to refer to when writing the review.

Be on the lookout for major trends and patterns. These are not usually specified in the texts themselves, but they become apparent towards the end. Note the commonalities and gaps among the texts, but be wary of treating each text of equal importance. You should be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each text and determine how each conclusion is relevant to your research.

3. Synthesize the literature.

How you write a literature review for a research paper depends largely on the purpose of your study. Create an outline of the review, providing separate headings for separate categories. Within each heading, identify the similarities and differences among the texts and note any gaps in knowledge that need to be filled in. If possible, explain the literatures within the context of a unifying theoretical or contextual framework and discuss the theory is advanced by the individual texts. Always provide summaries for each heading and come up with an overall conclusion for the entire review.

4. Write the review.

There are three parts of the literature review: introduction, body and conclusion. The introduction aims to define the subject of study and point out the general findings that have arisen in previous bodies of work. It also points out how you identified, analyzed and compared texts included in the review. The body is the meat and bones of the review, where you group the texts into categories and analyze them according to various factors. Each category must be clearly delineated from the other by providing clear and straightforward thesis statements.  By the time you reach the conclusion, you should already be able to summarize the significant findings that arose from the body of literature you have studied. Also, point out the major flaws and inconsistencies and identify the “knowledge gaps” that you seek to fill in with your own contributions. The review should be thorough and comprehensive, but always keep the main focus on the subject of your own study.

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Sample Historical Essay on Colonial Capitalism Mon, 07 Sep 2015 08:26:27 +0000 This example of a historical essay was shared by academic writer from Go ahead and read this sample essay to improve your writing skills.

Capitalism was a global phenomenon from the outset, not only by way of trade but also by way of extraction of resources from the colonies that underpinned capital accumulation in the metropolis.

cotton imageThe development of capitalism in the middle-ages resulted in the saturation of domestic markets especially in Europe, thus necessitating the search for markets and cheap labour abroad, resulting in the pursuit and scramble for colonies and the division of the world among capitalist countries. 1

The pillage and exploitation of the Americas and the West Indies, and that of Africa by virtue of the slave trade, and, not least, the discovery by Europeans of the sea route to India and the Far East, led to a very rapid growth in world trade by the sixteenth century. It is important to recognise the global character of the colonial enterprise from the outset. The financing of Indo-European trade, for instance, with gold and silver and precious stones was made possible by colonial link of Europe namely the Iberian conquest and exploitation of Latin America that brought about a steady flow of precious metals into Europe. That pattern of exports to Europe of Indian manufactures against payment in precious metals was the reverse of the classical pattern of colonial trade that was to be brought into being not until the second half of the 19th century. 2

Before the turn of the 19th century indentured slave labour was toiling in colonial plantations all over the world. Twentieth century industrial squalor now began to spread while near slavery in the plantations and mines provided the cheap commodities, raw material and fuel for industry seeking cheap labour. 3


The beginning of industrial capitalism in South Africa was part of the global development of imperialism in the last 30 years of the 19th century. Vast amounts of capital were exported, mainly from Britain, to develop industrial diamond and gold mining in South Africa. From small diggings operated by owner-artisans, the mining industry was quickly dominated by vast corporations. Today’s companies like De Beers date back to these early decades. 4

Imperialist political domination of the whole South African terrain after the Anglo-Boer war meant that infrastructural development, taxation and, above all, labour regulation could be directed towards the requirements of the mining corporations. 5

None can doubt the truth contained in what Comrade Fidel Castro said in 1988 that the history of Africa will be divided into before and after Cuito Cuanavale. So, because the victory of the revolutionary democratic forces in that battle against the bulwark of colonialism, apartheid South Africa, was a deciding factor and tocsin for the ultimate victory of the anti-colonial struggle throughout the continent. 6

It will be remembered that the forces of colonialism made their last desperate stand in this Southern region of Africa, where imperialist forces concentrated all their efforts, energy, weapons and human resources to ensure the permanent sustenance of their evil cause. 7

On the other hand, the national liberation movement waged the most heroic, daring, stoic battle to rid the continent of the menace of colonialism. On each occasion, people’s struggle did not triumph without guts and blood, and on each occasion, where it was defeated, colonial forces left trails of blood and devastation as they sought to wrest strategic victory and ensure that were free only in form while in oppressed in substance. 8

As they lost political power, the colonial forces, accustomed to plundering resources, sought to create client States everywhere in Africa that would basically facilitate this outcome and preserve their economic interests. To deepen dependence on them, as they were wrecking the economies, they were bludgeoning South Africa into an unceasing debt burden that has resulted in massive outflows of capital to the developed countries from Africa that, itself, serves to preserve colonial economic relations. 9

Indeed, these client States were to become a prominent feature of post-colonial independent Africa. Leaders of the progressive national liberation movement were assassinated in many countries; there were civil wars, coups de tat and other anti-democratic manoeuvres that were to deny the African people, after many years of fighting for freedom, their political and socio-economic rights. 10

While they claimed to be democratic, everywhere in Africa imperialists propped up and supported brutal dictatorships so long as they could preclude the seizure of power by the revolutionary democratic movement. 11

In this entire arrangement, South Africa occupied a strategic position as an outpost of imperialism and colonialism. White supremacists thought that they could guard this turf with all their arsenal, disrupt and destroy the Frontline States in order to cut the ANC off from all sources of assistance and eventually to destroy it so that it does not interfere with this set up. 12

It was no coincidence that African people throughout the continent joined together in a common effort to defeat the apartheid monster in South Africa. Upon this one fact hinged the most critical questions of the emancipation of Africa as a whole. Africa understood that for as long as the apartheid regime remained intact in South Africa, so long would Africa herself and all her children remain in permanent bondage. The basic fact was that apartheid was incompatible with and antithetical to Africa’s independence. 13


Cuba has progressed through the stages of colonization, globalization and development differently than any other Latin American country. In Cuba, the occurrence of these stages has been more recent, stable and progressive. Cuba functioned as a colonial state under the overpowering United States government until Fidel Castro’s revolution of 1958. The eventual break in trade relations between the United States and Cuba has caused the unusual evolution of globalization due to the trade embargoes imposed on Cuban exports. The abnormal progress of Cuba in such ways has led to Cuba’s unique state of being a developed, third world country. 14

In the past 43 years of the Revolution, Cuba’s movement toward development has been exceptional. Castro’s emphasis on the necessity of a developmental infrastructure has led to a highly functioning and educated society. Although Cuba is restrained by extreme economic difficulties that cause (or are caused by) irregularities in the governmental system, the population of the small archipelago is literate, healthy, fed, and housed. This social security has created a rather patriotic civil society, Cuba’s strongest and most admirable quality. 15

The relative unification and pride that Cubans feel for their country was fostered by the United States colonization prior to the Revolution. During the United States occupation of Cuba, in the beginning of the twentieth century, the development experienced was contrary to that of a sustainable concept. The United States intervention in Cuba caused a dichotomy in the existing cultures; there were those who were privileged with dollars (all too frequently only the U.S. Americans and diplomats) and those who were left out of the raging casino economy, the majority of whom were Cuban natives. Development in this epoch was therefore faulted because benefits only reached a small sector while the rest of the population was left uneducated and obligated to exploitation. The majority was thus a stratified populace, plagued by poverty and stagnancy. Cuba for this reason lacked the ability to develop. 16

The history of international development has been stained by colonization, a process that applies a standard scheme of imposition and penetration in communities. In the quest for rapid acquisition of wealth, colonization has reaped negative effects throughout the world by understating the individuality of regions. The result of colonization has overwhelmingly left countries in political, economic, environmental and social disarray, which ultimately leaves the unstable countries dependent upon foreign support systems. Therefore, colonization as a development model does not succeed in forming a functional market system wherein “the structural transformation of the economy, society, polity and culture permits self-generating and self-perpetuating use and development of a people’s potential.” 17

Reference List

  1. Bernard S. Cohn. Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge. Princeton Univ Pr; August 19, 1996.
  2. Bernard S. Cohn.
  3. Bernard S. Cohn.
  4. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff. Of Revelation and Revolution: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa. University of Chicago Press; June 1991.
  5. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  6. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  7. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  8. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  9. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  10. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  11. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  12. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  13. Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff.
  14. Peter Clegg, Timothy Shaw. The Caribbean Banana Trade: From Colonialism to Globalization. Palgrave Macmillan; October 11, 2002.
  15. Peter Clegg, Timothy Shaw.
  16. Peter Clegg, Timothy Shaw.
  17. Ania Loomba. Colonialism/Postcolonialism (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge; April 1998.
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