Sample Essays: Handling of Bio-terrorist Threats

A while ago we shared with you some ideas on terrorism essay writing. And finally here’s a sample essay on this dangerous topic.

Bio-terrorism as the branch of world-spreading mass invasion of global terrorism becomes not just the invention of fiction writers but real threat for mankind. Tragedy on the September 11 when the World Trade Center was bombed has heightened public anxiety and concern about biological agents. The need of protection from bio-terrorism was confirmed when the sarin attack occurred in the Tokyo subway system. Thus, possibility to be attacked with biological weapon turned to be true. Such possibility increases many times as this kind of weapon is being developed by a number of countries around the world. Therefore, any time and anywhere we are under danger to become potential victims of tremendous illness and death because of bio-terrorism. “Bioterrorism covers a very broad spectrum of concerns, from catastrophic terrorism with mass casualties, to micro events using low technology but producing civil unrest, disruption, disease, disabilities, and death.” [1]

Governments of all countries are perplexed with the efficient strategy of eradication bio-terrorist threats for their countries. Milititary and medicine institutes are responsible for reduction of bio-terrorist influences and attacks the most. All basic and main actions directed to fight with bio-terrorism fulfilled by these institutions consist of prevention and liquidation measures.

One of the primary tasks of the institutions as a prevention measure is to give the public “the kind of information they need to respond to infectious disease threats in the community, understand emerging disease trends, and implement appropriate prevention and control strategies”. [1] People are aware of the danger of bio-terrorism but they do not know the facts they should know. There is no doubt that big promotion of the report of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment published in 1993 would have influenced people’s understanding of the problem and their readiness to fight against bio-terrorism with military forces. The report concludes that if 100 kg of powdered anthrax, which is a bio agent, was released upwind of Washington, D.C.; the result could be the deaths of up to 300,000 to 3,000,000 people. [2] The public needs informing and educating about the reality of bioterrorism. The military institutions of the countries are the first to become the source of the information.

Communication between the public and military forces enables not just ordinary people to be aware of the danger to be attacked with bio-weapon or its agents but it gives the military an opportunity to get important suspicious information on neighbors. Hoaxes help to examine coordination and response in this communication. [1] Protocols and strategies developed from it lead to recognition of a fact. Thus, the public that will produce all the information needed by the institutions will effectively understand support from military institutions gained through communication.

Legal regulation is necessary which is a guarantee of efficient communication between the public and the military. It is where the difference between Federal Bureau of Investigation surveillance and public health surveillance is seen. Legal issues help rapidly detect, diagnose, and control a bioterrorist event.  Legal and regulatory issues dealing with quarantine laws and jurisdictional concerns, as well as with the availability or use of certain drugs or vaccines not licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in certain populations in an epidemic context, need to be addressed. [1] In order if people refuse to cooperate with the authorities they will be forced to meet legal regulation in the field of bio-terrorism.

Military should cooperate with medic in order to produce new efficient in their fight against bio-terrorism drugs. The consequences of the bioterrorist attack is very far from conventional bomb with its blowing up, taking care of the injured and coming back to more or less normal ordinary life. Ordinary care system is not prepared to oppose bio-terrorism. Therefore, cooperation between military and medical institutes is vital as they can share gained information and direct their forces on creating a national stockpile of drugs and pharmaceutical products for civilian use as there is a great need of therapeutic products. The need increases many times in mass-casualty situations when the number of patients makes it is impossible even for existing drugs to fight the virus caused by bio-agents or bio-weapon. Exhaustion of equipment, small medication or inability of the drugs to be efficient is the reasons, which proves the need to replace i.v. Therapy by oral therapy. [3]

Source of producing bio-agents or bio-weapons are to be under military control. This prevention measure is one of the most efficient as absence of danger to be bio-attacked will make all other preventive and liquidation measures worthless. Therefore, access to the source of producing bio-agents or bio-weapons is in national interests.

In case when the territory was attacked by bio-terrorists military are to use liquidation measures. General rule is raped, quick, moment and effective reaction of all military and medical institutions on local, regional and national level. Thus, proliferation of the virus will be stopped or at least reduced.  A fundamental step toward addressing the threat of bioterrorism is comprehensive planning that focuses first and foremost on local preparedness and response capacity—integrating the role of state, regional, and federal governments, as well as state, regional, and national assets [1]. United system of  local, state, and national levels is the base of liquidation measures.

Bio-terrorism is dangerous because of the way it is transmitted. In this case appears situation when the territory must be closed on quarantine in order to prevent future spreading of the virus. All specific measures must be used depending on the characteristics of the territory, its length, quantity of people living on the territory, season of the year and name of the bio-agent or bio-weapon, which determines its influences on health and environment and characteristic features. There are anthrax (Bacillus anthraces), bacillus anthraces (anthrax), botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin), brucella species (brucellosis), brucellosis (Brucella species), Burkholderia mallei (glanders), Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis), Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis), Cholera (Vibrio cholerae), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Clostridium perfringens (Epsilon toxin), Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), E. coli O157:H7 (Escherichia coli), emerging infectious diseases such as Nipah virus and hantavirus, epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli), Food safety threats (e.g., Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), Glanders (Burkholderia mallei), Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei), Plague (Yersinia pestis), Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans), Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus fever), Salmonella species (salmonellosis), Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever), Salmonellosis (Salmonella species), Shigella (shigellosis), Shigellosis (Shigella), Smallpox (variola major), Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Tularemia (Francisella tularensis), Typhoid fever (Salmonella Typhi), Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii), Variola major (smallpox) and Vibrio cholerae (cholera) are biological agents which cause diseases accordingly [4]. For each of the agents there is its own measure of prevention diseases, which determine liquidation measures of the military forces. Military forces are aware of the measures they must provide with. Thus, military institutions must work in cooperation with medical institutions in order to gain higher level of people’s protection.

Later military actions become more efficient when they search the place of spreading the bio-weapon or bio-agents, its conditions and the reasons. The results of the research are the clue in solving the problem of distinguishing the bio-terrorism group, its location and source of getting the weapon or agents of bio-viruses. In this case, close communication with the public in investigational process offers chances to be led to the right solution. In addition to biomedical research, further research into such diverse concerns as defining appropriate personal protective gear or decontamination procedures is fundamental to our overall preparedness for a bioterrorist attack. [1]

Nevertheless, communication and publicity is highly needed and is vital, not all the themes can be produced to the public. In the investigational process of committing a bio-terrorist attack many secret facts appear. National prorities in protection of citizens’ lives and protection of the territory of a country are basic, which makes it impossible to share the information, which may harm national interests. Political communication on international level, which is spoiled with such a disaster, must be proved. Any rumor, any journal article or opinion turn to a great scandal on the global level which can have more dangerous consequences as biological weapons are being developed by a number of countries around the world as well as there are lots of sources of getting bio-agents by any country. Therefore, suspicious information must be investigated and then if there is any need and legal reasons be published.

Summing up, danger to be attacked with bio-weapon threatening people of all nationalities all over the world. Since last terrorist acts in New-York, Tokyo and other cities with more or less degree of danger it is clear that literatual inventions comes to become true dramatic facts of our life. Country protects its citizens with its measures of civil security, which is providing by medical and military institutions the most. Effective work of militaries in order to protect against bio-terrorism is provided with prevention and liquidation measures. Education and information people about the danger of biological weapon, communication with them in order to get important and useful information, control of the law and order in the field of fight against bio-terrorism, communication with the medical institutions in order to produce new drugs and control of the access to the source of bio-agent determine efficiency of military prevention measures. System of rapid reaction to the danger on local, regional and national level, cooperation with the victims, public and medics, investigational process with appropriate level of secrecy provides countries with high-level liquidation measures. Bio-terrorist threat to civilians cause the danger that influence can be reduced with the help of these measures. Every country has its own right how to fight bio-terrorism but the uniting conclusion for all countries is that global bio-terrorism is the danger, which should not exist.

Bibliography:

  1. “Addressing Bioterrorist Threats: Where Do We go from Here?” Margaret A. Hamburg Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., USA
    http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/hamburg.htm
  2. Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress. 1993. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruc-tion, p. 53–55. Publication OTA-ISC-559.U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
  3. “Bioterrorist Threats: What the Infectious Disease Community Should Know about Anthrax and Plague”, Thomas V. Inglesby, Chapter 14 http://www.asmusa.org/pcsrc/bioprep/14.223_234.pdf
  4. Biological Agents/Diseases http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist.asp

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